FREN 100 AMU Week 7 French I American Military University assistance is available on Domyclass
Week 7 Overview
This week we will be practicing French for Have and Need, Buying, Selling, and Shopping, Using Landmarks to Provide Directions, Employ French structures, sounds, and vocabulary for Leisure and Preferred Activities, and Quantity Comparisons and Differentiation, Currency and Cost, Books, Food, and the News. For those of you who like to shop, we will be practicing the vocabulary you need to do it with! We will complete seventh Forum. A bit of culture this time. I think you are going to enjoy it.
Students will be able to:
- Employ French structures, sounds, and vocabulary for Have and Need, Buying, Selling, and Shopping, Using Landmarks to Provide Directions
- Employ French structures, sounds, and vocabulary for Leisure and Preferred Activities, Quantity Comparisons and Differentiation, Currency and Cost, Books, Food, and the News.
In this lesson, we will discuss:
- Have and Need, Buying, Selling, and Shopping, Using Landmarks to Provide Directions, Leisure and Preferred Activities, Quantity Comparisons and Differentiation, Currency and Cost, Books, Food, and the News
- Likes and Dislikes
- Needs and Desires
- Books, Food, and the News
The following activities and assessments need to be completed this week:
- Lesson for week 7
- Readings and Resources
- Oral Exercise 4
- Week 7 Forum
- Skill-builder 7
Topics to be covered include:
- Wants and needs
- Currency and Costs
In this course, you have learned how to greet people, talk about yourself and others, and share information about your daily routine. In this lesson, you will learn how to talk about your wants and needs, and the wants and needs of others, as well as how to shop for the things you need in French. You will also learn the vocabulary of food. Food is one of those things you will almost certainly need to order or shop for in order to survive on a visit to France. In addition, it is a common subject for discussion.
In Lesson 6, you learned how to talk about your everyday routines, but did not learn a lot about what happens out of the house, during the day or evening. After getting yourself up and getting dressed, you may need to run errands, and if you have to run errands, you will need to talk to people. Much of the content in this lesson is about getting your needs and wants met, from buying milk to visiting a local bakery or market.
Shopping in France
In America, you are likely used to near 24/7 access to basic needs. In many communities, you can find a large discount retailer open nearly any time to purchase groceries, toilet paper, or even clothing and cosmetics. You may do some, or even all of your shopping, at a large-scale retailer like this. It is relatively unlikely that you visit a farmer’s market, bakery, and meat market for your groceries, although certainly some people do.
Many parts of America rely upon cars for transportation; there’s little public transit. Since you are likely driving to the store for groceries, you can buy a lot at one time; there’s no need to make frequent trips, and, in some communities, it may not even be practical to visit shops for basic needs regularly.
Since stores have long opening hours, you likely shop when it’s most convenient for your schedule. You may even go out of your way to shop at hours when the store is quiet, like Sunday mornings. For Americans, French shopping culture can be quite a culture shock–it’s very different!
If you visit France, or even spend time watching French films or television, you may notice that life in France assumes a synchronized rhythm, unlike life in the United States. Since large-scale discount retailers are open long hours, Americans may shop whenever they like. The French, on the other hand, typically have fewer hours available to shop; stores are not open the long hours common in the United States.
Department stores typically close earlier and open later than in the United States. Markets open early in the morning and close early, usually just before or just after lunch; this is somewhat like many farmer’s markets in the United States. Supermarkets stay open regular hours, but they remain less popular, particularly in the countryside.
If you are visiting France, you will almost certainly want (or need) to do some shopping. You must keep in mind opening and closing hours for the shops, including lunch breaks, and remember, shops are usually closed on Sunday!
Imagine you are studying French in a foreign land or just visiting as a tourist. For the purpose of this conversation, you are staying with a host family. You need to talk about what you need, or perhaps what your host needs.
|Vous avez besoin de lait.||You need some milk.|
|Oui, j’en ai besoin.||Yes, I need some.|
|Allons-nous au supermarché?||Shall we go to the supermarket ?|
|Oui, j’ai besoin de faire des courses.||Yes, I need to go shopping.|
The phrase in French used for “need” is avoir besoin de. You remember avoir, or to have. Essentially, you are saying “have need of.”
You can use the same structure to talk about other things that you need, not just your shopping list.
|Il pleut.||It’s raining.|
|Nous avons besoin d’un parapluie.||We need an umbrella.|
|Mon parapluie est cassé.||My umbrella is broken.|
If your conversation continues, you may discuss your errands, as well as the weather.
|J’aime la pluie.||I like the rain.|
|J’aime mieux être sec.||I prefer to be dry.|
|Je n’ai pas d’argent.||I don’t have any money.|
|M’achetez-vous un billet de métro?||Will you buy me a metro ticket.|
|Et un parapluie.||And an umbrella.|
You may have made a shopping list before your shopping trip, or discussed what you need to buy while you are at the store.
|Nous avons besoin de légumes et de viande.||We need some vegetables and some meat.|
|Nous avons besoin de café.||We need some coffee.|
Perhaps your host asks about your wants and needs, in order to help you to be more comfortable during your stay.
|J’aime les fruits.||I like fruit.|
|Je n’aime pas les fruits.||I don’t like fruit.|
You might respond with your own needs and wants during this conversation, although one hopes you are prepared to pay for your own needs. C’est normal, or “it’s normal,” to share your likes and dislikes with your host or friends in France.
There are several expressions for expressing desire such as aimer, aimer mieux, vouloir and others for expressing need like avoir besoin de. You have already learned aimer. Aimer mieux means to prefer. Vouloir means to want.
Vouloir is an irregular verb. You will need to memorize how to conjugate vouloir. It is also helpful to know when to use vouloir, either in the present tense or the conditional tense.
|Je veux||I want|
|Tu veux||You want|
|Il/elle veut||He/she wants|
|Nous voulons||We want|
|Vous voulez||You want|
|Elles/ils veulent||They want|
Examples of Sentences
|J’aime le chocolat.||I like chocolate.|
|Veux-tu du pain?||Do you want some bread?|
|Allons-nous à la boulangerie?||Shall we go to the bakery?|
|Veux-tu du gâteau?||Do you want some cake?|
|Voulez-vous acheter quelque chose à la pharmacie?||Do you want to buy something at the pharmacy?|
|Le matin, j’aime prendre du jus d’orange.||In the morning, I like to have some orange juice.|
|Mince, c’est l’anniversaire de ma petite amie!||Shoot, it’s my girlfriend’s birthday.|
|Nous allons à cette bijouterie sur la rue du Roi?||Shall we go to that jewelry store on King Street?|
|Pas de problème.||No problem.|
|Où se trouve la pharmacie?||Where is the pharmacy located?|
The verb vouloir is used quite often in French for discussing wants. It can be used with a noun or a verb.
Ex. Je veux des jouets pour mon fils or “I want some toys for my son. ” Or Je veux regarder la télévision ce soir ( I want to watch television tonight).
Would Like To… and Must
Generally the French soften the verb vouloir with a conditional form: voudrais/voudrait. The conditional form is considered a bit more polite than the more direct form, although either may be used in many cases.
You can use vouloir in the conditional form, like je voudrais, to make a polite request. You may use the present tense of vouloir to issue an invitation. You can respond to an invitation in the positive with vouloir. For instance, je veux bien can translate to “I would love to.” If you’re declining, it is considered quite impolite to simply say Je ne veux pas. Instead, you can say, je voudrais bien, mais... You will use devoir or must when you make your explanation.
|Je voudrais||I would like|
|Tu voudrais||You would like|
|Il/elle voudrait||He/she would like|
|Nous voudrions||We would like|
|Vous voudriez||You would like|
|Ils/elles voudraient||They would like|
How Much Does it Cost?
When you are shopping, you are likely to need to discuss the cost of various items, and whether or not an item is expensive or inexpensive. Acheteris the verb meaning to buy. It takes regular -er verb endings, but requires an accent grave over the first -e in all forms except nous and vous.
|J’achète le café alors?||Shall I buy the coffee then?|
|Combien est-ce que ça coûte?||How much does it cost?|
|Ça coûte dix euros.||That costs ten euros.|
|C’est cher.||It’s expensive.|
|C’est bon marché.||It is inexpensive.|
|Ce n’est pas cher.||They are not expensive.|
|Ces lunettes de soleil coûtent combien?||How much do those sunglasses cost?|
If you are speaking about a particular item, you will want to make sure the gender of your noun and your pronouns agree: Elles coûtent 100 euros (They cost 100 euros).
When nouns are countable, you should use the form des, for example in the sentence:
|Je veux des carottes.||I want some carrots.|
|J’aime regarder les lunettes de soleil.||I like to look at the sunglasses.|
|J’aimerais acheter des lunettes de soleil.||I would like to buy some sunglasses.|
You can continue your conversation, sharing more information about what is available and where you can purchase different items.
|Il y a une pharmacie dans cette rue.||There is a pharmacy on this street.|
|Elle est près d’ici.||It is close to here.|
|Ils vendent des lunettes de soleil.||They sell sunglasses.|
|Mes lunettes de soleil sont cassées.||My sunglasses are broken.|
|Comment payez-vous, Monsieur?||How will you be paying, Sir?|
|En espèces?||In cash?|
|Avec une carte de crédit?||With a credit card?|
|Nous acceptons tous les moyens de paiement.||We accept all forms of payment.|
Choose the best translation for the following sentence: Elles doivent travailler ce soir.
|She has to work this evening.|
|They have to work this evening.|
|Do they work this evening?|
|She wants to work this evening.|
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Whether you are planning a vacation or hoping to study abroad, you will need an idea of how much things cost in France. Obviously, there are many ways to control your spending; you can choose to limit shopping, eat economically, or find a lower-cost housing solution. Nonetheless, budgeting is an important consideration.
To give you some idea of expenses, look at the following typical costs for a student studying abroad in Paris. As you can probably expect, costs are going to be higher in Paris than in the countryside in many cases.
- A monthly transit pass: 62 Euros
- A coffee: 2-4 Euros
- A sandwich or crêpe: 4-6 Euros
- Meal at a nicer restaurant: 15-20 Euros
Entertainment and shopping related costs vary widely. In addition, students or tourists with access to some amenities, like a kitchen or kitchenette, may be able to reduce costs by opting to have coffee or eat at home or at their hotels. At better restaurants, you may also find the option of prix fixe menu. A prix fixe menu is a set menu, including multiple courses for a designated price. Think of it as a French version of the special of the day, but it’s a full meal, rather than a single dish. In some cases, this is a more affordable way to try out a nicer quality restaurant, or to try new dishes while you’re visiting France.
When you are shopping, or even when having conversations, you may need to compare different items. One item is more or less than another item. He is a quick lesson on how that is done.
|Ces lunettes de soleil sont plus belles que les autres.||These sunglasses are more beautiful than the others.|
|J’aime mieux les fruits que les légumes.||I like fruit better than vegetables.|
|J’aime mieux le chocolat que les fruits.||I like chocolate more than fruit.|
Here, you see two different types of comparisons. One uses an adjective and superlative, “more beautiful” or plus belle. The other uses a phrase you have learned in this lesson, aimer mieux. When you’re using aimer mieux for a comparison, you will use two words connected by que. The aimer mieux…que… structure can be translated as “I like…better than…”
You can also compare quantities of things, or which items you have more or less of.
|À la maison, j’ai plus de fruits que de légumes.||At the house, I have more fruits than vegetables.|
|Le marché a plus de jouets que de nourriture.||The market has more toys than food.|
Adjectives and Adjective Forms
You have already learned how to express comparisons involving your own preferences, or quantities of things. You may also need to compare qualities of individuals or things using adjectives.
|L’homme est plus vieux que la femme.||The man is older than the woman.|
|Ma grand-mère est plus vieille que ma mère.||My grandmother is older than my mother.|
Notice that the adjectives always correspond in number and gender with the noun that they modify. Some adjective phrases have a fixed form like la vieille dame or homme gentil (“the old woman” or “the nice man”). When the phrase has a set form, it should always be used that way; the form is often related specifically to the placement of the adjective in the sentence. In English, adjectives precede nouns; the nice man, the old woman, the fuzzy dog. In most cases, in French, the adjective follows the noun; like le livre (book) bleu. While you can memorize lists of which adjectives come before the noun, there’s a simple acronym to help you remember, used by many French teachers.
To remember which adjectives come before the noun, memorize BAGS. BAGS stands for beauty, age, goodness and size. Adjectives that fit easily into these categories typically come before the noun. Examples include beau and joli, vieux, nouveau, and jeune, bon, mal, and meilleure (better), grand, gros, and petit. A few other adjectives are also used before the noun; these include faux (false), autre (other), and même (same).
Questions about Preferences and Costs
Sometime a sense or idea of preference is included as part of a question. You are being asked or are asking about preferences, tastes and opinions. These questions can be part of general conversations, but may also be part of shopping excursions or other activities.
|Quel animal aimez-vous?||Which animal do you like ?|
|Quelles sont les lunettes que vous préférez?||Which glasses do you prefer?|
You have already learned that combien means “how much,” and coûter means “cost.” While you can ask specifically how much an item costs, this requires more conjugation. In everyday speech, people commonly simplify this:
|Combien ça coûte les lunettes ?||How much is this, the sunglasses? This is an easier option as there is no need to conjugate coûter.|
|Ça coûte cinq dollars.||That costs five dollars.|
|Vous les voulez?||Do you want them?|
|C’est bon?||Is it a deal?|
The example here illustrates an ordinary conversation during a shopping trip. You may notice that while polite, it’s relatively brief, and even somewhat informal (but vous is still used!).
Which of the following adjectives comes AFTER the noun?
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In order to go shopping, you need money, and you need to know the correct terms for money in France. While France used to use its own national currency, the Franc, today, only Euros are accepted in France. There are eight different coin denominations and seven different bill denominations in Euros. You will, occasionally, see prices listed in both Francs and Euros. However, this is simply for the convenience of people who still think of their money in terms of Francs. 1/3
- Bills and CoinsEuro coins include the 2 Euro, 1 Euro, 50 cents, 20 cents, 50 cents, five cents, two cents, and one cent. Coins look different from one European country to another, but have the same value and may be spent in all countries using the Euro. Bills vary in color and size and include 500 Euro notes, 200 Euro notes, 100 Euro notes, 50 Euro notes, 20 Euro notes, 10 Euro notes, and 5 Euro notes. For an American, you might notice that you’re likely to carry and use coins more than you do in the U.S. (ISA “Culture Corner”). You can convert U.S. dollars or traveler’s checks at banks; this is the most favorable option in terms of rates; however, traveler’s checks may not be accepted at many businesses. You may also convert money to Euros in the United States at many larger banks. However, rates are often unfavorable. Consider carrying just enough Euros when you arrive to handle immediate expenses; withdrawing money directly in Euros is a more economical and practical choice (Trip Savvy “Exchange Euros”).
Navigation with Landmarks
You have already learned how to ask directions to your destination, and how to understand some responses, with phrases like to the right, and at the main street. While you may navigate with streets and street names, you are also likely, in day-to-day life, to navigate using landmarks or even using more complex directions. There are some phrases you definitely need to memorize to navigate France.
|À droite||To the right|
|À gauche||To the left|
|Tout droit||Straight ahead (tout is often repeated here for emphasis)|
Just to make this harder, droit and droite are very similar words, but are pronounced slightly differently. Droite has an audible –t sound at the end of the word. Droit, as in tout droit, does not.
Locals may also use the cardinal directions when providing you with information about getting to a place or the location of a place. These are actually quite similar to the English equivalents. “North” is nordand “south” is sud. “West” is ouest and “east” is est.
- L’église est au sud de la gare translates to “The church is south of the train station.”
When someone is providing you with landmarks to navigate by, they will often tell you what is near or close to your destination. Two terms that mean near or close by are près de and à côté.
|Est-ce qu’il y a un restaurant à côté?||Is there a restaurant close by?|
|Le café est près du métro.||The café is near the subway.|
En face de means in front of. Au coin de or at the corner of may also be used.
|La gare est en face de l’église.||The train station is in front of the church.|
|Le café est au coin de la rue principale.||The café is at the corner of the main street (Fluent “Feeling Disoriented”).|
You have already learned about dining in France, but you have not learned how to order a meal or to talk about what food you want to eat at a meal. You will find a wide variety of foods available in France, and meal options that can please both adventurous and picky eaters (although, being picky is seen as quite rude!). Learning the vocabulary of food will help you to order a meal, and to know what you are ordering and eating.
Les viandes are “meats.” If you are a vegetarian, you may want to know how to say that you do not eat meat: je ne mange pas de viande. While in America, you may usually only find beef, pork, chicken, and fish on restaurant menus, there are significantly more options on the menu in France, but you will also find the basics.
|Le bœuf||Beef. You may also see le biftek (steak) or le rosbif (roast beef) on restaurant menus.|
| Le porc |
Le bacon en tranche
|Le lapin||Rabbit. Rabbit is significantly more popular in France than in the United States.|
|Les saucissons||Sausages. Sausages may be made of a number of different meats.|
|L’agneau||Lamb. Like rabbit, lamb is quite popular in France.|
Steak and lamb are often served between rare and medium rare; you may not be asked how you would prefer yours cooked. À point means perfectly cooked. If you do not want your steak rare to medium rare, you may ask for it bien cuit; this is between medium and well done, or très bien cuit, very well done.