SPAN 100 AMU Week 1 lesson Spanish I American Military University assistance is available on Domyclass
- Bienvenidos a la clase! I am very glad to have you along during this 8-week intensive study of Spanish.
We will use the Rosetta Stone (RS) Language software as our text. The RS site is basically your “class time” where you will be introduced to the content that the course is based upon. Be sure to select “Level 1” if prompted as well as the “recommended course” once you get onto the RS site through the left menu. Plan to spend around 4 hours a week on the RS website. This week you will be presented with basic vocabulary and introductions. Please read the grammar notes that supplement the content you receive on the RS site.
You must participate on the RS website through the APUS classroom and not from personal software or a government sponsored account. (NOTE: Doing the RS work is not optional but is the backbone of the course where you will receive all of the information that you will be evaluated on.) Any technical problems you may have with accessing RS need to be taken up with ClassroomSupport@APUS.EDU.
Students will be able to:
- Introduce themselves in Spanish, verbally (optional) or in writing
- Participate on RS website interacting with vocabulary, identifying objects based on spoken words they hear
In this lesson, we will discuss:
- Spanish greetings
- Vocabulary for people
- Personal Pronouns
- Direct Objects
- Vocabulary for People and Places
- Regular verb conjugation
- Gender and Plurality
- Vocabulary for basic objects
Note: The key concepts are all presented in the Rosetta Stone tasks and are explained in the grammar notes for Unit one.
The following activities and assessments need to be completed this week: What is due this week:
- Unit 1, lessons 1 & 2 in Rosetta Stone: (core lessons— diamond—and focused activities, which are the squares, that follow)
- Week 1 forum: Introductions
- Syllabus/User Guide quiz (tests and quizzes link)
- Corresponding Work Book materials (in Reading & Resources–please self-correct with the answer key. This is supplemental practice and is not submitted to me since you grade it yourself)
- RS Journal Entry One
Accents and Punctuation
|á = alt + 160||ñ = alt + 164||Á = alt + 0193|
|é = alt + 130||Ñ = alt + 165||É = alt + 0201|
|í = alt + 161||¿ = alt + 168||Í = alt + 0205|
|ó = alt + 162||¡ = alt + 173||Ó = alt + 0211|
|ú = alt + 163||ü = alt + 129||Ú = alt + 0218|
|More “alt” commands can be found in the Windows95 Character Map!||« = alt + 174||» = alt + 175|
The above chart shows how to type Spanish letters with accent marks as well as punctuation that is not on English-language keyboards. It is simple—if you are a PC user, you simply hold down the ALT key to the immediate left of the space bar, and type in on the number pad the three or four digit number. The letter with the symbol will appear. Practice a few to see how it works! It will be necessary to use these ALT commands when submitting essays, quizzes, and exams in Spanish. Accents are very important to the Spanish alphabet and their presence or lack of presence can alter the meaning of a word. For example, the word Sí (with an accent) means YES, but the word Si (without the accent) means IF. Perhaps the most important use for accents is with verbs as the tense and form can be confused. For example, hablo means I SPEAK (present tense, YO form) where habló means HE SPOKE (él, ella, Ud. Form of past tense).
All Spanish verbs are either “regular” or “irregular.” These notes will look at three completely regular verbs:
comer (to eat)
vivir (to live)
Notice the last two letters of each verb.
comer (to eat)
vivir (to live)
There are three categories of verbs:
-ar verbs (like hablar)
-er verbs (like comer)
-ir verbs (like vivir)
All three categories are infinitives. Infinitives are the base form of the verb, equivalent in English to: to speak, to eat, to live, etc. In Spanish, all infinitives end in -ar, -er, or -ir.
hablar (to speak)
comer (to eat)
vivir (to live)
Remember what it means to conjugate a verb:
In this lesson, you will learn to conjugate regular –ar, -er, and –ir verbs in the present tense.
To form regular –ar, -er, and –ir verbs, drop the endings (ar/er/or ir) from the verb (for example, HABLAR = HABL-) and add the appropriate ending for the subject of the sentence.
The personal pronouns yo (I), tú (you, familiar), él (he), ella (she), Usted (you, formal), nosotros (we), ellos/ellas (they), and Ustedes (you ‘guys’) all have an ending that attaches to this stem, once the –ar, -er, or –ir is dropped. Below are the endings for conjugating verbs.
AR verbs: After dopping the AR from regular AR verbs, add:
Yo – o
Tú – as
Él/ella/Usted – a
Nosotros – amos
Ellos/ellas/Ustedes – an
hablar – to speak
yo hablo –I speak nosotros hablamos – we speak
tú hablas – you speak
él habla – he speaks ellos hablan – they speak
ella habla- she speaks ellas hablan – they speak (all females)
Usted habla-you (formal) speak ustedes hablan – you (guys) speak
Yo – o
Tú – es
Él/ella/Usted – e
Nosotros – emos
Ellos/ellas/Ustedes – en
comer – to eat
yo como – I eat nosotros/as comemos – we eat
tú comes – you eat (familiar)
él come – he eats ellos comen- they eat
ella come – she eats ellas comen – they eat (all females)
usted come – you (formal) eat ustedes comen – you guys eat
Yo – o
Tú – es
Él/ella/Usted – e
Nosotros – imos
Ellos/ellas/Ustedes – en
vivir – to live
yo vivo – I live nosotros/as vivimos – we live
tú vives – you live
él vive – he lives ellos viven – they live
ella vive – she lives ellas viven – they live (all females)
Usted vive – you (formal) live ustedes viven – you guys live
Look for a pattern in the yo form.
If the subject is I (yo), conjugate by dropping the ending and add -o.
yo hablo (hablar – ar
+ o = hablo)
yo como (comer – er + o = como)
yo vivo (vivir – ir + o = vivo)
Look for a pattern in the usted form.
If the subject is you formal (usted) drop the ending and add either -a or -e. If the verb is an -ar verb, add -a. If it is an -er or -ir verb, add -e.
usted habla (hablar –
ar + a = habla)
usted come (comer – er + e = come)
usted vive (vivir – ir + e = vive)
Look for a pattern in the nosotros/as form.
If the subject is we (nosotros/as), conjugate by dropping the ending and add -amos, -emos, or -imos.
Notice that the ending of the infinitive determines which is used: -ar verbs add -amos, -er verbs add -emos, -ir verbs add -imos.
(hablar – ar + amos = hablamos)
(comer – er + emos = comemos)
(vivir – ir + imos = vivimos)
Look for a pattern in the ustedes form.
If the subject is you-all (ustedes), conjugate by dropping the ending and add -an or -en. If the verb is an -ar verb, add -an. If it is an -er or an -ir verb, add -en.
(hablar – ar + an = hablan)
(comer – er + en = comen)
(vivir – ir + en = viven)
Practice: Fill in the correct form for the following verbs. Scroll down to see if you got them correct! Notice you don’t have to know what the verb means to be able to conjugate it correctly. The following are all regular –ar, -er, and –ir verbs. Use the charts above if you need help.
- Yo___________(mirar) la television. I watch t.v.
- Nosotros______________(aprender) español. We learn Spanish.
- Tú_________(vivir) en Costa Rica. You live in Costa Rica.
- Ella____________(hablar) portugues. She speaks Portugues.
- Ustedes_____________(vender) los carros. You guys sell cars.
1. miro; 2. aprendemos; 3. vives; 4. habla; 5. venden
Stress and Accentuation
STRESS and ACCENTUATION in Spanish
- Every word in Spanish has a stressed syllable.
- Words may or may not have a written accent mark on the vowel of the stressed syllable.
The normal accentuation of Spanish words follows these rules:
(no written accent)
- The natural accent falls on the second to last syllable if the word ends in any vowel (a,e,i,o,u)or –n, -s. (Note that dipthongs [the union of a strong vowel – a,e,o- and a weak vowel – i,y,u] count as and are pronounced as a single syllable.)
- The natural accent falls on the last syllable if the word ends in any consonant except –n or –s.
The accent needs to be written if the natural accent of the word is on the third to last syllable or breaks any of the rules above.
Ejemplos: 3rd to last syllable Breaks rules
Accents are also used to distinguish between two words that are spelled the same. This accent does not effect pronunciation.
Ejemplos: sí (yes) si (if)
tú (subject pronoun –‘ you’) tu (possessive adjective – ‘your’)
él (subject pronoun – ‘he’) el (definite article – ‘the’)
¿qué? (what?) que (conjunction, ‘that’)
A verb is an action word.
The main form of a verb is called the infinitive. In English, infinitives include the word “to.”
The infinitive is the pure form of a verb. The infinitive is like a lump of clay that can be molded to match the subject of the sentence it is used in:
Note: The above forms are called conjugations of the infinitive “to speak.”
Regarding the form “you-all” — this usage is not considered to be standard English. In standard English, the same word is used for both the singular you and the plural you. That is, each of the following is correct:
have a tail light out, ma’am.
You (kids) have soccer practice at four.
In the first sentence, “you” refers to the singular “ma’am.” In the second sentence, “you” refers to the plural “kids.” To avoid confusion between you (singular) and you (plural), we will employ the non-standard English usage “you-all” to indicate you (plural). This will be very beneficial to y’all, particularly at the beginning of your studies.
The words “I” “you” “he” “she” “we” “you-all” and “they” are called subject pronouns. Spanish has corresponding subject pronouns. Here’s a list of the English subject pronouns and their Spanish equivalents:
yo = I
tú = you (familiar form)
usted = you (formal, polite form)
él = he
ella = she
nosotros = we
ustedes = you-all/”you guys”
ellos/ellas = they
Spanish subject pronouns are both similar to and different from their English counterparts. Let’s examine some of the differences. Look more closely at the English word “you.”
You have just seen that this can be translated into Spanish as “usted.” But there is also a second way it can be translated. There are two ways the English word “you” can be expressed in Spanish:
usted = you
tú = you
Spanish has a formal and an informal form of the word “you.” “Usted” is more formal and is generally used to express respect. “Tú” is more familiar and is used among friends, coworkers, relatives, or when addressing a child.
to your boss: usted
Speaking to your daughter: tú
Speaking to your teacher: usted
Speaking to your friend: tú
usted = you formal
tú = you informal (familiar)
In many ways, Spanish is more gender-specific than English. We find evidence of this in the subject pronouns. First, look at the word “nosotros.” This means “we” in the sense of a group containing at least one male. If the group contains only females, the word “nosotras” is used. So, in Spanish, there are two ways to say “we”:
we (masculine or mixed group)
This same idea applies to the English word “they”:
they (masculine or mixed group)
Finally, don’t get confused over the difference between talking to a group or talking about a group. Consider the following statement, which could have been made by your Spanish teacher, while standing before the class:
“You-all need to study your Spanish. Those students in the other class don’t need to study Spanish. They are studying French. You-all can practice Spanish in Spain. They can practice French in France.”
The teacher is talking to the Spanish students and about the French students.
Talking to a group, use “you-all”:
Talking about a group, use “they”:
Here’s the complete list of Spanish subject pronouns:
yo – I
tú – you (familiar)
él – he
ella – she
usted – you (formal)
nosotros – we (masculine or mixed gender)
nosotras – we (feminine)
ellos – they (masculine or mixed gender)
ellas – they (feminine)
ustedes – you-all (or) you guys (formal and familiar for “you plural” in Latin America)